Evolución histórica de las oficinas

Las oficinas tienen una larga trayectoria histórica y como profesionales en mobiliario de estos lugares de trabajo, es necesario ser conocedores de la misma.

La oficina parece un invento moderno, sin embargo acarrea siglos de historia. Ya en la antigua Roma existía una burocracia elaborada que dio lugar a la concepción del lugar donde alguien permanecía sentado y desarrollaba su trabajo.

Las oficinas antiguamente eran parte de un palacio o en su caso un templo de grandes dimensiones, se destinaba un cuarto a guardar los pergaminos o escritos en donde los escribas realizaban su labor. Referencias en textos antiguos hablan de estos cuartos y los definen como bibliotecas, sin embargo allí se desarrollaban verdaderas actividades administrativas, por lo que se pueden considerar como los precursores, de algún modo, de las oficinas de hoy en día.

office_1719
Oficina en el año 1719
office_1903
Una oficina típica a principios del pasado siglo (1903)

 

Adelantándonos varios siglos, ya en 1729, hay que hablar de la creación de la East India House en donde trabajo el ensayista Charles Lamb, el que nos dejó escritos donde podemos apreciar cómo era la vida en estas pasadas oficinas. Había en aquel entonces una obsesión por la eficiencia, era preciso exprimir el tiempo del trabajador al máximo, y para ello se tomó el modelo de trabajo de las antiguas fábricas de producción masiva.

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En la década de 1940 existían ya varias empresas que se dedicaban al diseño de oficinas, un ejemplo es la empresa estadounidense Herman Miller.

oficina-1940
Oficina en 1940

 

En los años 50 comienza a modificarse el concepto de oficina, se empieza a comprender que aquellos empleados que se sienten más cómodos y más felices trabajan mejor y son más productivos.

En 1968 se lanza al mercado el concepto de “Action Office” creado por Robert Propst, éste defendía la idea de un espacio laboral dinámico que les daría comodidad y sobre todo privacidad a los trabajadores que fue, finalmente, reducido a un pequeño espacio de paredes movibles que ahora están en todas las oficinas del mundo, los conocidos módulos intercambiables, llamados “cubículos”.

action_office_ii_1978

En la actualidad, mucho ha avanzado el diseño de mobiliario para oficinas, hoy en día se piensa que la oficina es el segundo hogar del trabajador. Se busca un mejor rendimiento y una comodidad que antes no se tenía en cuenta.

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disenoarquitectura-cl-multioficina-longo-foto000-700x380

Incluso, es habitual dentro de las oficinas crear espacios dinámicos y de ocio que sirven para despejarse. La orientación a concebir un ambiente idóneo y ergonómico para que el empleado se sienta a gusto y desarrolle su labor productiva y eficientemente, es el objetivo actual en lo referente a la conformación de espacios de trabajo.

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